Women across the world bear a disproportionate burden of poverty in terms of material deprivation, discrimination, and denial of their basic rights. This means they often have little opportunity to influence the processes and institutions which shape their lives. The under-representation of women’s voices in decision-making and agenda-setting at all levels means that their interests tend to be under-represented in critical policy-making fora, and their skills, experience, and knowledge under-utilized. This entrenches both gender inequality and the poverty confronted by women and their communities on a daily basis. Women’s Leadership and Participation by Oxfam illustrates methodological approaches and learning points, covering a range of issues, from women’s participation in national elections to female decision-making in community livelihood initiatives. It asks the questions: what are the structural barriers to women’s leadership and participation? How can women be encouraged to take up leadership positions? Once they are leading, how can women (and men) be supported to carry out their roles effectively and for progressive purposes?